String Materials. Nylon is one of the most common materials used to make tennis racket strings. Depending on their chemical composition, nylon strings can be soft or firm. Strings made with a nylon-core offer a good level of performance and durability and are less expensive than other types of materials. Another string material option is polyester.
The most important properties expected to be found in the racquet are being lightweight and robust, and its strings being elastic and durable. Graphite is an excellent material for frames, and a mixture of nylon and polyester makes the best material for strings. However, it may vary from person to person.
Pure graphite made tennis rackets have a stiffer feel, making them a favourite of power hitters of tennis. Graphite composite is also used like kevlar, fibreglass and titanium along with tungsten to create the best frames of tennis racket out of them.
The most common materials that are used to make a tennis racket grip are rubber, leather, synthetic polymer, etc. These materials are soft at the same time helps to maintain a good grip. To improve friction, the racket grips are often designed with curved, textured, or patterned surface.
Today most racket frames are made from light-weight graphite or graphite composites that incorporate materials such as titanium, kevlar or fibreglass, giving added levels of frame flexibility, while remaining cost effective.
The typical layers of a composite racket are fiberglass, graphite, and boron or kevlar. Other materials may be used as well, such as ceramic fibers for added strength. Other materials found in tennis rackets are nylon, gut, or synthetic gut for the strings, and leather or synthetic material for the handle grip.
The latest development in the evolution of the tennis racket has been the inclusion of smart materials in the handle that are capable of reducing frame vibration. The materials used, called piezoelectric ceramics, generate an electric charge when they are under a mechanical force (or stress), and, inversely, produce a mechanical force (or displacement) when an electric charge is applied.
Both glass and carbon fibre composites have a higher specific stiffness (modulus/density) than aluminium, so rackets made from composites can be much lighter, particularly in the case of carbon fibre. Continuous fibres can be woven into a variety of weave styles, giving increased control of the racket's characteristics.